APPENDIX C: DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES

Derivational affixes are prefixes or suffixes.
Derivational suffixes occur before flexional endings.

AC-1> -vyr..........one who
lervyru lervyroo
teacher (nom.) teacher (acc.)

AC-2> noen-..........de-, remove
ik peltenoeneut jeu peltenoenoos
I skinned you skinned

TYPES OF DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES: Click on the following to jump down to the affixes themselves. Sorry, many examples in the tables below are not numbered.

NOUN TO NOUN
VERB TO VERB
MODIFIER TO MODIFIER
NOUN TO VERB
NOUN TO MODIFIER
NOUN TO NOUN OR MODIFIER
VERB TO NOUN
VERB TO MODIFIER
NOUN OR MODIFIER TO VERB
NOUN OR MODIFIER TO NOUN
ADJECTIVE TO ADVERB
NEGATIVE PREFIX
NUMERAL SUFFIXES
PROPER NAME SUFFIXES


NOUN TO NOUN

affix meaning before after
-cad young of hund ~ dog hundecad ~ puppy
-caft science of numyr ~ number numyrcaft ~ mathematics
-cimyl place for (collection of) buek ~ book buekecimyl ~ library
-ctoib (singulative) sand ~ sand sandectoib ~ grain of sand
falc- false, pseudo- verp ~ thing falceverp ~ mirage, hallucination
-groep (collective) poliesu ~ police officer poliesegroep ~ the police
-joo inhabitant, member, adherent koolalant ~ America koolalantejoozu ~ American
-oexte (augmentative) meel ~ meal meeloexte ~ feast
-var in-law fadyru ~ father fadyrvaru ~ father-in-law
-xin (diminutive) meel ~ meal meelxin ~ snack
-zait time span of foor ~ life foorzait ~ lifetime


VERB TO VERB

affix meaning before after
be- (converts sense-verb
to linking verb)
cmeken ~ to taste becmeken ~ to taste like
er- thoroughly, "up" beunen ~ to burn erbeunen ~ to burn up
feel- wrongly, "mis-" cozen ~ to speak feelcozen ~ to mis-speak
oer- before, "pre-" halten ~ to stop oerhalten ~ to prevent
un- reversal of act, "un-" tuzen ~ to do untuzen ~ to undo
viedyr- again, "re-" meeten ~ to meet viedyrmeeten ~ to socialize with


MODIFIER TO MODIFIER

affix meaning before after
-maist (superlative) good ~ good goodemaist ~ best
-mer (comparative) good ~ good goodemer ~ better
-oexte (augmentative) lidyl ~ little lidyloexte ~ tiny


NOUN TO VERB

affix meaning before after
din- give or distribute X to eet ~ food dineeten ~ feed
-noen remove a thing or quality from X zad ~ seed zadenoenen ~ to de-seed


NOUN TO MODIFIER

affix meaning before after
-emax made of X heut ~ wood heutemax ~ wooden
-deec resistant or invulnerable to X foir ~ fire foirdeec ~ fireproof
-ig (marks some adjectives) blut ~ blood blutig ~ bloody
-loos lacking in X, "-less" voen ~ hope voeneloos ~ hopeless
vel- full of or replete with X, "-ful" skil ~ skill skilvel ~ skillful


NOUN TO NOUN OR MODIFIER

affix meaning before after
-farb color of drak ~ dirt drakefarb ~ the color of dirt; dirt-colored
-hiv shape neud ~ kidney neudehiv ~ a kidney shape; kidney-shaped


VERB TO NOUN

affix meaning before after
-cimyl place where action is done fengen ~ to hold fengecimyl ~ jail, prison
-eef something that does X lyrken ~ to suck lyrkeef ~ sucker (as on a squid)
-ueci thing to which X is done ceuten ~ to shoot ceutueci ~ shell, round
-ujo person to whom X is done leren ~ to teach lerujozu ~ student
-vyr person who does X leren ~ to teach lervyr ~ teacher


VERB TO MODIFIER

affix meaning before after
-geero able to be subject to X hoeren ~ to hear hoergeero ~ audible
-iedyl tending to do X speesen ~ to forget speesiedyl ~ forgetful


NOUN OR MODIFIER TO VERB

affix meaning before after
fer- endow with attribute deec ~ strong ferdeecen ~ to strengthen
..... ..... eeldor ~ life fereeldoren ~ to animate


NOUN OR MODIFIER TO NOUN

affix meaning before after
-ctyrn one that is X rad ~ red radectyrn ~ red one
-hait essense of X, "-ness," "-hood," etc. mencu, mencig ~ human mencehait ~ humanity


ADJECTIVE TO ADVERB

affix meaning before after
-laik (adverbial) pienix ~ fast, quick pienixelaik ~ quickly


NEGATIVE

affix meaning before after
ent-> (negative prefix) vilkum ~ welcome entevilkum ~ unwelcome


NUMERAL SUFFIXES

-tien -eux -uenyr -gin -soo -aif
+ 10 x 10 x 100 reciprocal multiplicative ordinal

AC-3>	teu	teutien		teuzeux	        teuzuenyr
	two	twelve		twenty		two hundred

	teugin		teusoo			teuzaif
	one half	twice as many/much	second


PROPER NAME SUFFIXES

suffix meaning example meaning
-byrg name of town or city siejadylbyrg Seattle
-feu matronymic helenefeu child of Helen
-gai patronymic polgai child of Paul
-jak name of a foreign language angyljak English
-lant name of a country or land koolalant America
-oo wastebasket proper noun marker reenieroo Rainier
-tru name of a god valdetru Forest God
-vee name of an animal faidoovee Fido


Yes, more than one derivational affix can occur in the same word.

AC-4> ceut
shoot
+ ueci
thing to do
= ceutueci
shell, round
ceutueci
shell, round
+ xin
diminutive
= ceutteucixin
bullet
ceutuecixin
bullet
+ deec
proof
= ceutuecixindeec
bullet-proof
ceutuecixindeec
bullet-proof
+ ctyrn
one that is
= ceutuecixindeectyrn
bullet-proof one
ceutuecixindeectyrn
bullet-proof one
+ ent-
(negative)
= enteceutuecixindeectyrn
non-bullet-proof one


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