Chapter 1: ALPHABET, SOUNDS, AND WORDS

1.1....ALPHABET: Goesk's roman alphabet has both upper and lower case letters, but lacks the letters "q" and "w." Spellings are pronounced consistently as indicated below. German words are used to illustrate non-English pronunciations or spellings.

1.2....THE CONSONANTS AND GLIDE: Goesk has the glide "j" but not "w."

bboy cshoe ddoe ffee ggo hhoe
jJohan kkey llow mmoe nno ppie
rrye sset ttoe vvow xmich zzoo

a) The letter "y" before "r" or "l" signifies syllabification of the "r" or "l" sounds.

1.2-1 vodyr
water
1.2-2 lidyl
little

b) The sound spelled "n" as in "no" becomes the sound spelled "ng" as in "sing" before the "g" or "k" sounds.

1.3....VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS: Since some English vowels are really diphthongs, and since English lacks front rounded vowels, some of the vowels' values will be illustrated with German words that I looked up.

a father ee gehen e stressed as in "pet"
unstressed [the schwa vowel]
ie liebchen
i pit ai aisle eu ** oi oil
o along oe Goethe oo das Boot u die Kunst
ue typisch au das Haus **starts with "e" as in "pet"; ends with "u" as in "put"

1.4....PHONOTACTICS:

a) Words may begin with the glide "j" or with any consonant other than "x."

b) Words may end with any consonant other than "h," and may not end with the glide "j."

c) Words may begin or end with syllabic sounds--vowels, diphthongs, "yl," and "yr."

d) Vowels and diphthongs do not occur consecutively within a word.

e) Syllabic consonants may be followed, but not preceded, by vowel sounds.

1.4-1 fadyru
father
1.4-2 nikyl
nickel

f) Syllabic consonants may be preceded or followed by just about any consonant or cluster, and not just the ones that may precede or follow non-syllabic "l" or "r." e.g.

1.4-3 lidyl
little
1.4-4 zyrxen
to mope

g) The following sequences of liquids that contain syllabic liquids are permitted.

yrl ryl lyr ylyr yryl

h) If word-formation produces a sequence of homorganic liquids, one syllabic and one non-syllabic, the non-syllabic liquid is dropped from the sequence. This is reflected in spelling. [Note the insertion of "z" in 1.4-5 and 1.4-6 and see rules c) and j).]

1.4-5 veul
want to
+ yl
future
= veuzyl
will want to

1.4-6 beer
bear
+ yrnen
run
= beezyrnen
to run after with intent to harm

1.4-7 lidyl
little
+ lori
truck
= lidylori
mini-truck

1.4-8 viedyr
again
+ resten
rest
= viedyresten
to turn in for the night

i) These clusters are permitted initially, medially, and finally.

sp st sk cp ct ck

j) These clusters are permitted medially.

mb mv md
nb nv nd
{nasal, liquid, obstruent} + h

k) These clusters are permitted initially and medially.

sm cm sn cn

pr br fr tr dr sr cr kr gr
pl bl fl tl dl sl cl kl gl

l) These clusters are permitted medially and finally.

mfmsnsnznc
mpmtntntnkng

rmrnrllmln

rfrvrsrzrcrx
lflvlslzlclx

xtft

m) /n/ becomes velar before /g/ or /k/, but /N/ is not an independent phoneme as it is in English. Always pronounce the hard "g" when saying Goesk words whose written forms include the digraph "ng."

n) The schwa vowel is inserted to break up unnacceptable clusters; the consonant "z" is inserted to break up unacceptable sequences of syllabic sounds.

1.4-9 goesk
goesk
+ loite
nation
= goeskeloite
goesk nation

1.4-10 cu
shoe
+ ars
butt
= cuzars
heel (of shoe)

o) When compounding creates a sequence of two identical sounds, they are written and pronounced as one sound. Goesk has no geminates or double consonant-letters.

1.4-11 luf
love
+ frau
woman
= lufrau
girlfriend

1.4-12 in
in
+ neemen
take
= ineemen
to adopt (a child)

1.5....WORD STRESS: Primary stress is on the first syllable of a root that follows a prefix. Secondary stress usually occurs on the third syllable after the primary, or the first syllable of the second stem in a compound word.

1.5-1 goeskeloite
goesk nation

1.5-2 entemencehait
inhumanity

1.5-3 poliesegroep


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