Chapter 4: PRONOUNS

4.1....FIRST AND SECOND PERSON PRONOUNS: These are irregular, and inflected as follows:

1st singular 1st plural 2nd singular 2nd plural
nom. ik vier jeu u
I we you you
acc. mik us jeuv ulie
me us you you
gen. meen unsyr jeuren ier
my/mine our/ours your/yours your/yours
dat. mis uns jees ienen
to/for me to/for us to/for you to/for you

4.2....GENERIC THIRD PERSON PRONOUNS: These are derived by adding initial ?h-? to the flexional endings for nouns, and a special nominative neuter ending, ?-etre.?

nominative accusative genitive dative
common hu hoo hoes hum
he/she him/her his/her(s) to/for him/her
neuter hetre ha has hai
it it its to/for it
plural hue huen hoesoe huem
they them their(s) to/for them

4.3....DEMONSTRATIVE & INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS: These are derived by adding single initial consonants to the flexional endings for nouns. Proximate demonstrative pronouns begin with ?d-.? Remote demonstratives begin with ?z-.? Interrogative pronouns begin with ?v-,? and take only common-gender and neuter endings.

Notice the common-gender demonstratives, which refer to people. Since Goesk generic third person pronouns do not have gender, the personal demonstratives are sometime used to clarify reference, to keep track of who is doing what to whom. So ?hu? (he/she) might refer to one person and ?zu? (that person) to another in the same paragraph.

PROX. nominative accusative genitive dative
common du doo does dum
this person that person of this person to/for this person
neuter detre da das dai
this that of this to/for this
plural due duen doesoe duem
these these of these to/for these

REMOTE nominative accusative genitive dative
common zu zoo zoes zum
that person that person of that person to/for that person
neuter zetre za zas zai
that that of that to/for that
plural zue zuen zoesoe zuem
those those of those to/for those

INTERR. nominative accusative genitive dative
common vu voo voes vum
who whom of whom to/for whom
neuter vetre va vas vai
what what of what to/for what

NOTE: In some contexts, conjoined singular proximate and remote demonstratives idiomutically mean ?each.? The idiomatic conjoined pronouns are treated as singular.

4.3-1 Du und zu
This person and that person
habit
has
beda.
a bed.
Each person has a bed.

4.3-2 Detre und zetre
This and that
vendeus.
went.
Each went.

4.4....INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: Singular indefinite pronouns and plural impersonal indefinite pronouns are inflected as other pronouns are. But plural personal indefinite pronouns take special plural personal endings shown in this table:

PLURAL-INDEF nominative accusative genitive dative
personal -eze -enen -eses -emem
impersonal -ue -uen -oesoe -uem

a) These indefinite pronouns can be either singular or plural.

singular plural
andyr
another one, another thing, something else
andyrue
other things
andyru
another person, someone else
andyreze
other people
man
something
manue
some things
manu
someone, one
maneze
people (in general, unspecified, unknown)

c) With these pronouns, the singular forms are mass and always impersonal, but the plurals are both personal and impersonal.

fifyl
not much stuff
fifyleze
not many people
fifylue
not many things

mer
more stuff
mereze
more people
merue
more things

naf
enough stuff
nafeze
enough people
nafue
enough things

vad
a lot of stuff
vadeze
a lot of people
vadue
a lot of things

veen
a little stuff
veeneze
a few people
venue
a few things

veenyr
less stuff
veenyreze
fewer people
veenyrue
fewer things

d) These indefinite pronouns occur only in the singular:

arn
anything
arnu
anyone
narn
nothing
narnu
no one
ol
everything
olu
everyone

e) These indefinite pronouns occur only in the plural:

bidylue
several things
bidyleze
several people
maistue
most things
maisteze
most people

4.5....NUMERAL PRONOUNS: Cardinal, ordinal, and ratio numeral terms can all serve as pronouns.

a) Cardinal numeral pronouns take plural endings: even ?zipue? (none of them) and ?venue? (one of them)!

4.5-1> teuzue
two of them
dreezue
three of them
dree tausand, foifue
three thousand and five of them

b) Ordinal and ratio pronouns agree with their antecedents in gender and number.

4.5-2> venaif
the first one (neut.)
venaifu
the first one (com.)
venaifue
the first ones (plur.)

4.5-3> feugin
one fourth of it
feuginu
one fourth of him/her
feuginue
one fourth of them

4.5-4> teusoo-dreegin
two thirds of it
teusoo-dreeginue
two thirds of him/her
teusoo-dreeginue
two thirds of them

4.5-5> foifesoo
five times as much of it
foifesoozu
five times as much of him/her
foifesoozue
five times as many of them

4.5-6> teusoo-dreeginsoo
two thirds as much of it
teusoo-dreeginsoozu teusoo-dreeginozue
two thirds as many

4.6....GENERAL ORDINAL PRONOUNS: There are three: ?next? meaning ?the next,? ?lest? meaning ?the last (i.e. preceeding) one,? and ?meeg? meaning ?the last (i.e. final) one.? General ordinal pronouns pattern just as ordinal numeral pronouns do.

common-gender neuter plural
nextu next nextue
the next one the next one the next ones
lestu lest lestue
the preceeding one the preceeding one the preceeding ones
meegu meeg meegue
the final one the final one the final ones

4.7....PRONOUN PHRASES: Pronouns can be combined into larger phrases, often with the genitive of one pronoun postmodifying another pronoun.

4.7-1> vu jeuren
which of you
vetre doesoe
which of these

4.7-2> vadeze jeuren
many of you
vadue zoesoe
many of those

4.7-3> dreezue unsyr
three of us
drezue doesoe
three of these

4.7-4> venaif hoesoe
the first of them
teuzaif zoesoe
the second of those

4.7-5> teuzaif bidyleze
the second of several people
venaif vadoesoe
the first of many

4.7-6> lest hoesoe
the last of them
next doesoe
the next of these

4.7-7> feugin jeuren
a fourth of you
feugin das
a fourth of this

4.7-8> feuginsoozue jeuren
a fourth as many of you
feuginsoo has
a fourth as much of it

4.7-9> arn doesoe
any of these
nafue zoesoe
enough of those


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