Chapter 5: DETERMINERS

5.1....DETERMINERS IN GENERAL: Determiners agree with their associated nouns in case, gender, and number by means of the suffixes listed here. In strings that include determiners and adjectives, determiners always come first.

nominative accusative genitive dative
common -us -oot -oest -ums
neuter -e -at -ast -ais
plural -ues -uent -oesoet -uems

5.2....PROXIMATE, REMOTE, AND INTERROGATIVE DETERMINERS: These are derived by adding "d-," "z-," and "v-" respectively to the determiner endings.

5.2-1> nom. acc. gen. dat.
com. dus camu
this man
doot camoo
this man
doest camoes
of this man
dums camum
to/for this man
neut. de prat
this door
dat prata
this door
dast pratas
of this door
dais pratai
to/for this door
plur. dues camue
these men
duent camuen
these men
doesoet camoesoe
of these men
duems camuem
to/for these men

5.2-2> nom. acc. gen. dat.
com. zus camu
that man
zoot camoo
that man
zoest camoes
of that man
zums camum
to or for that man
neut. ze prat
that door
zat prata
that door
zast pratas
of that door
zais pratai
to/for that door
plur. zues camue
those men
zuent camuen
those men
zoesoet camoesoe
of those men
zuems camuem
to/for those men

5.2-3> nom. acc. gen. dat.
com. vus camu
what man
voot camoo
what man
voest camoes
of what man
vums camum
to/for what man
neut. ve prat
what door
vat prata
what door
vas pratas
of what door
vais pratai
to/for what door
plur. vues camue
what men
vuent camuen
what men
voesoet camoesoe
of what men
vuems camuem
to/for what men

a) Genitive interrogative determiners may NOT translate as "whose." That privilage is reserved for the genitive common-gender interrogative pronoun "voes."

5.2-4a vast hundas
of what dog
5.2-4b hund voes
whose dog

b) Goesk demonstrative determiners can do the work of definite articles. Loosely speaking, Goesk speakers say "this man" or "that man" when we would say "the man." For instance, "dus camu" or "zus camu" can both "the man." when context requires. Goesk demonstrative determiners are used more sparingly than English definite articles. For instance, in the phrase "de hand meen" (the hand of me, i.e. my hand), the determiner "de" is optional, because "meen" (mine) refers to one specific owner of the hand, making the reference of the whole phrase definite in most contexts.

c) Demonstrative determiners can be conjoined to form a determiner phrase that means "each." (c.f. examples 4.3-1 and 4.3-2)

5.2-5 Dus und zus barnu habit bed.
This and that child has a bed.
correctly: Each child has a bed.

5.2-6 De und ze deu vendeus.
This and that animal went.
correctly: Each animal went.

d) Cardinal numeral pronouns refer to a certain number of unspecified individuals from a larger group. Modified by demonstrative determiners, these pronouns stand for groups comprising the number of individuals indicated by the numeral word.

5.2-7 de ven
the/this one
5.2-8 dues teuzue
these two/the two of them/both of them
5.2.9 dues dreezue
these three/the three of them/all three of them
5.2-10 dues ven-tausand, sesuenyr-sieveneux-feuzue
these/the/all one thousand, six hundred seventy four of them

e) Ratio numeral terms with values less than one also take demonstrative determiners.

5.2-10> de teugin
this half (of it/them)
dues teusoo-dreeginue
these two thirds (of it/them)

f) Interrogative determiners may precede cardinal and ratio numeral pronouns.

5.2-11> ve ven?
which one?
vues teuzue?
which two?
ve teugin?
which half?

5.3....REFLEXIVE PRONOUN PHRASES: Proximate demonstrative determiners premodify personal pronouns to form reflexive pronoun phrases. These occur only in accusative or dative case. First and second person singular reflexive pronoun phrases occur in common-gender only.

acc. sing. doot mik doot jeuv doot hoo dat ha
myself yourself him/her-self itself

acc. plur. duent us duent ulue duent huen
ourselves yourselves themselves

dat. sing. dums mis dums jees dums hum dais hai
to/for myself to/for yourself to/for him/her-self to/for itself

dat. plur. duems uns duems ienen duems huem
to/for ourselves to/for yourselves to/for themselves

>> The common-gender proximate demonstrative determiner also makes indefinite "manu" (someone) reflexive. "doot manoo" means "oneself" (accusative) and "dums manum" means "to/for oneself." Use this with indefinite antecedents.

5.4....INDEFINITE DETERMINERS: Indefinite pronouns have corresponding determiners.

arn- man- narn-
any some no

5.4-1> arnus camu
any man
arnues camue
any men
5.4-3> narne mencu
no person
narnues mencue
no people

a) Some indefinite determiners have slightly different translations depending on whether they are singular or plural.

andyr- ol- veen- veenyr-
(an)other every/all a little/few less/fewer

5.4-4> andyrus camu
another man
andyrues camue
other men
5.4-5> ole haus
every house
olues hausue
all houses
5.4-6> veene vodyr
a little water
veenues frauzue
a few women
5.4-7> veenyre vodyr
less water
veenyrues frauzue
fewer women

b) Some indefinite determiners may only premodify plurals.

bidyl- fifyl-
several not many

5.4-8> bidylues frauzue
several women
fifylues hausue
not many houses

c) Some indefinite determiners premodify only mass or plural nouns.

maist- mer- naf vad- veen- veenyr-
most more enough a lot a little/a few less/fewer

5.4-9> maiste vain
most wine
maistues mencue
most people
5.4-10> mere vain
more wine
merues mencue
more people
& so on & so on

5.5....NUMERAL & GENERAL ORDINAL DETERMINERS: Determiners can also be derived from cardinal, ordinal, ratio and general ordinal terms.

5.5-0>
venus camu
one man
teuzues frauzue
two women
dreezaife dag
a third day
dreeginues mencue
a third of the people
dreesoozues dague
three times as many days
leste dag
last (preceding) day

5.6....NO POSSESSIVE DETERMINERS: Determiners are not derived from the personal pronouns. The work or English determiners such as "my," "your," and "their" is done in Goesk with genitive pronouns.

5.6-1 hund meen
dog of me
my dog
5.6-2 cuzue jeuren
shoes of you
your shoes
5.6-3 haus hoes
house of him/her
his/her house
5.6-4 kat hoesoe
cat of them
their cat

5.7....DETERMINER STRINGS: Determiners occur in strings as meaning permits. All the determiners in the same string take determiner endings.

5.7-0> andyrues dreezues mencue
another three people
dues feuzues mencue
the/these four people
dues andyrues dreezues mencue
the/these other three people
dues venaifues mencu
the/this first person
maistues andyrues hausue
most other houses
arnues teuzues mencue
any two people

5.8....DETERMINERS AND PRONOUNS: Sometimes, determiners can premodify pronouns.

5.8-0> de ven
this one, the one
dues teu
these two, the two, both


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