Chapter 6: ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

6.1....ADJECTIVES: When adjectives are declined, they take the same endings as determiners. However, adjectives are declined only when they occur initially in a string of noun premodifiers. So adjectives preceded by determiners and/or other adjectives are not declined, and neither are predicate adjectives.

6.1-1 groosus frauzu
big woman
6.1-2 groosus deec frauzu
big strong woman
6.13-3 dus gross deec frauzu
this big strong woman
6.1-4 Ik sieno groos.
I am big.

6.2....ADVERBS: These may occur almost anywhere in a sentence; before or after a verb, clause-initially or clause-finally. They may also premodify adjectives or even other adverbs.

a) These adverbs do not take a special adverbial suffix.

aux
also, too
bold
soon
coen
already
cpeet
late
doer
here
fast
almost
foecp
no longer
frue
early
heu
how
imyr
always
jest
now
keen
perhaps
krul
very
muemoo
kinda
nie
never
nik
not
noox
still, yet
nur
only
vaneer
when
varum
why
ver zeer
there
viedyr
again, onward
zeer
there
tu
too (much)

b) Another adverb that takes no special affix is ?eezect? (mutually). Goesk lacks a pronominal phrase meaning ?each other.? Use ?eezect? in clauses with plural subjects to convey reciprocal action.

6.2-1 Hue eezect augen.
They mutually saw.
correctly They saw each other.

c) The remaining adverbs take the suffix ?-laik.?

6.2-2> froolaik
happily
goodelaik
well
vaulaik
remarkably
clextelaik
badly
ueblaik
usually

d) Some important adverbs are derived from indefinite pronouns.

bidylaik
several times
maistelaik
mostly
merlaik
more
naflaik
enough
vadelaik
a lot
veenelaik
a little
veenyrlaik
less

e) The translation of ordinal numeral adverbs is straightforward.

6.2-3> venaiflaik
first(ly)
teuzaiflaik
second(ly)
dreezaiflaik
third(ly)

f) Cardinal numeral adverbs are iterative.

6.2-4> venelaik
once
teulaik
twice
dreelaik
three times

g) Multiplicative numeral adverbs are used for quantified comparisons of the frequency, duration, productivity, or intensity of some activity, depending on the context.

6.2-5> teuginsoolaik
half as much
vensoolaik
just as much
teusoolaik
twice as much

6.3....COMPARISON: The comparative suffix is ?-mer? and the superlative, ?-maist.?

a) Comparative and superlative suffixes occur before adverbial or other adjectival suffixes.

6.3-1> fesus meedu
smart girl
fesmerus meedu
smarter girl
6.3-2> cribeus goodelaik
wrote well
cribeus goodemerlaik
wrote better

b) When a superlative adjective premodifies a noun, it is always preceded by a determiner, usually the proximate demonstrative one. However, predicate superlative adjectives do not require accompanying determiners.

6.3-3> dus festmais meedu
the smartest girl
6.3-4> Dus meedu sienit fesmaist.
The girl is (the) smartest.

c) Comparison of adjectives and adverbs is never irregular in Goesk.

6.3-5> good
good
goodemer
better
goodemaist
best
6.3-6> goodelaik
well
goodemerlaik
better
goodemaistelaik
best
6.3-7> clext
bad
clextemer
worse
clextemaist
worst
6.3-8> clextelaik
badly
clextemerelaik
worse, more badly
clextemaistelaik
worst, the most badly

d) Comparative and superlative suffixes may be used with adjectives and adverbs of any length.

6.3-9 dreemdenkig
imaginative
dreemdenkigemer
more imaginative
dreemdenkigemaist
most imaginative
6.3-10 dreemdenklaik
imaginatively
dreemdenkigemerlaik
more imaginatively
dreemdenkigemaistelaik
most imaginatively

e) Comparisons between equals are conveyed with the adverb ?vensoolaik? and the preposition ?rum? with a genitive object, which means ?like.?

6.3-11 vensoolaik
just as much
groos
big
rum
like
hausas
house (gen.)
as big as a house


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