Chapter 7: INFLECTING VERBS

7.1....VERB SUFFIXES: All verbs are regular. Goesk has only one conjugation. All verb forms are derived by adding suffixes to invariant stems. The conjugation of “skarfen” (to eat) will serve as a paradigm.

a) The uninflected form of the verb is imperative. Skarf! Eat!

b) The active infinitive has the suffix “-en,” while the passive infinitive has the suffix “-ivez.”

skarfen
to eat
skarfivez
to be eaten

c) Present tense indicative forms are as follows:

SINGULAR 1st -o Ik skarfo. I eat.
2nd -ist Jeu skarfist. You eat.
3rd -it Hu skarfit. He/she eats.
PLURAL 1st -em Vier skarfem. We eat.
2nd -oet U skarfoet. Y'all eat.
3rd -ant Hue skarfant. They eat.

d) Preterite indicative forms are as follows:

SINGULAR 1st -eut Ik skarfeut. I ate.
2nd -oos Jeu skarfoos. You ate.
3rd -it Hu skarfeut. He/she ate.
PLURAL 1st -ud Vier skarfud. We ate.
2nd -unt U skarfunt. You ate.
3rd -oom Hue skarfoom. They ate.

e) The indicative future tense suffix for all persons and numbers is “-yl.”

7.1-1> Ik skarfyl.
I will eat.
Vier Skarfyl.
We will eat.
Jeu skarfyl.
You will eat.
Hue skarfyl.
They will eat.

f) Subjunctive verb suffixes are derived by suffixing either “-e” or “-ai” to the indicative verb suffixes. E-subjunctive is used for allegations or indirect speech in the indicative. Ai-subjunctive is used to convey conditional, hypothetical, or plainly counterfactual ideas; along with allegations or indirect speech about the latter!

7-1-2 Jeu
You
skarfoose
ate-subjun.
untyr
according to
zoest
that
camoes.
man-gen.
You ate according to that man.

7.1-3 Hue
They
sagoom
said
zeeje
that
jeu
you
skarfoose.
ate-subjun.
They said that you ate.

7.1-4 Jeu
You
skarfoosai
ate-subjun.
anec
if
ik
I
veukeutai.
worked-subjun.
You would have eaten if I had worked.

7.1-5 Vier
We
sagud
said
zeeje
that
jeu
you
skarfoosai.
ate-subjun.
We said that you would have eaten.

7.2....INFINITIVES TO GERUNDS: To derive gerunds from infinitives, inflect the latter as neuter nouns. Nominative gerunds take the suffix “-etre.”

nom. acc. gen. dat.
skarfenetre skarfena skarfenas skarfenai
eating eating of eating to/for eating
skarfivezetre skarfiveza skarfivezas skarfivezai
being eaten being eaten of being eaten to/for being eaten

7.3....OOPS, NO PARTICIPLES: Goesk has no participles. The work of participles that premodify nouns in English is done with relative clauses. Verbal complements of auxiliaries are infinitives.


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