8.1....PREPOSITIONS IN GENERAL: All Goesk prepositions govern the same three cases. A preposition usually indicates motion with an accusative object, static location with a dative object, and an abstract or temporal relationship with a genitive object.

an onto (w/ acc.) on (w/ dat.) on or at (a time) (w/ gen.)

8.1-1a an dat tica
onto the table

8.1-1b an dais ticai
on the table

8.1-1c an dast dagas
on the day

at to (w/ acc.) at (w/ dat.) for the purpose of (w/ gen.) as (w/ gen.)

8.1-2a at stura
to a store

8.1-2b at sturai
at a store

8.1-2c at skarfenas
for eating

8.1-2d at gebuecizas
as a present

bie right up to (w/ acc.) next to (w/ dat.) in return for(w/ gen.)

8.1-3a bie mik
right up to me

8.1-3b bie mis
next to me

8.1-3c bie zas
in return for that

gegen to the opposite side of (w/ acc.) opposite, facing (w/ dat.) in spite of (w/ gen.)

8.1-4a gegen vaixa
to the opposite side of the road

8.1-4b gegen jees
opposite/facing you

8.1-4c gegen dast regas
in spite of the rain

in into (w/ acc.) in (w/ dat.) because of (w/ gen.)

8.1-5a in dat hausa
into the house

8.1-5b in dais hausai
in the house

8.1-5c in dast hausas
because of the house

mid towards (w/ acc.) with (w/ dat.) during (w/ gen.)

8.1-6a mid dat hausa
towards the house

8.1-6b mid zums mencum
with that person

8.1-6c mid zast feestas
during the party

nai up to (w/ acc.) near, by (w/ dat.) until (w/ gen.)

8.1-7a nai poola
up to a pole

8.1-7b nai poolai
near or by a pole

8.1-7c nai zast feestas
until that party

ut out, out of (w/ acc.) outside (w/ dat.) except (w/ gen.)

8.1-8a ut kausta
out of a box

8.1-8b ut hausai unsyr
outside our house

8.1-8c ut jeuren
except you

a) Some Goesk prepositions translate the same with either dative or accusative objects. Such instances are noted below by marking a preposition?s translation with (d.) when its meaning is dynamic, and (s.) when its meaning is static.

auf up (d.) (w/ acc.) up (s.) (w/ dat.) in/into a system (w/ gen.)

8.1-9a venden auf poola
go up a pole

8.1-9b sienen auf poolai
be up a pole

8.1-9c sienen auf angyljakas
to be in English

8.1-9d toortesagen auf angyljakas
translate into English

aufan against (d.) (w/ acc.) against (s.) (w/ dat.) against, opposed to (w/ gen.)

8.1-10a bazen aufan vaunta
to hit against a wall

8.1-10b leunen aufan vauntai
to lean against a wall

8.1-10c reeden aufan dast rextas
to speak against this law

boeftin behind (d.) (w/ acc.) behind (s.) (w/ dat.) after (w/ gen.)

8.1-11a venden boeftin vaunta
to go behind a wall

8.1-11b drolen boeftin vauntai
to sleep behind a wall

8.1-11c drolen boeftin feestas
to sleep after a party

brod all over (d.) (w/ acc.) all over (s.) (w/ dat.) throughout (a time or event) (w/ gen.)

8.1-12a venden brod dat byrga
to go all over town

8.1-12b sienen brod das fluzai
to be all over this floor

8.1-12c drolen brod dast dagas
to sleep throughout the day

durx through (d.) (w/ acc.) through (s.) (w/ dat.) with (by means of) (w/ gen.)

8.1-13a venden durx cuta
to go through a hall

8.1-13b flieten durx dais liexemai
to "run" through the body

8.1-13c venden durx autozas
to go by car

NOTE: With a dative object, ?durx? means ?through? without motion, as tunnels, wires, or veins course or run ?through? things. In Goesk, the verb that indicates this motionless ?coursing? or ?running? is ?flieten.? In other contexts, ?flieten? means ?flow.?

fram from (d.) (w/ acc.) from (s.) (w/ dat.) from (a time) or made of (w/ gen.)

8.1-14a kumen fram zat byrga
to come from that city/town

8.1-14b sienen fram zais byrgai
to be from that city/town

8.1-14c gienen fram zast zaitas
to start from that time

8.1-14d haus fram rostoesoe
a house made of rocks

fyrn far from (d.) (w/ acc.) far from (s.) (w/ dat.) versus, as opposed to (w/ gen.)

8.1-15a venden fyrn zat byrga
to go far from that city/town

8.1-15b sienen fyrn zais byrgai
to be far from that city/town

8.1-15c mik fyrn jees
me as opposed to you

lu along (d.) (w/ acc.) along (s.) (w/ dat.) along with, in addition to (w/ gen.)

8.1-16a venden lu dat vaixa
to go along the road

8.1-16b sienen lu dais vaixai
to be along the road

1.8-16c camu lu frauzoes
a man along with a woman

need down (d.) (w/ acc.) down (s.) (w/ dat.) out of (a system) (w/ gen.)

8.1-17a venden need duent staupuen
to go down these stairs

8.1-17b sienen need duems staupuem
to be down the stairs

8.1-17c toortesagen need angyljakas
to translate out of English

oer in front of (d.) (w/ acc.) in front of (s.) (w/ dat.) before (w/ gen.)

8.1-18a venden oer hausa
to go in front of a house

8.1-18b drolen oer hausai
to sleep in front of a house

8.1-18c drolen oer feestas
to sleep before the party

oovyr over (d.) (w/ acc.) over (s.) (w/ dat.) for (a time) or about or with, when it comes to (w/ gen.)

8.1-19a fleemen oovyr dat hausa
to fly over the house

8.1-19b sienen oovyr dais hausai
to be over the house

8.1-19c droegen oovyr dagas
to last for a day

8.1-19d sienen oovyr beeroesoe
be about bears

8.1-19e fes oovyr cleetyloesoe
smart when it comes to tools

rum around (d.) (w/ acc.) around (s.) (w/ dat.) like (w/ gen.)

8.1-20a venden rum hausa
run around a house

8.1-20b sienen rum hausai
be around a house

8.1-20c sienen rum meen
be like me

seet past (d.) (w/ acc.) past (s.) (w/ dat.) since (w/ gen.)

8.1-21a venden seet dat stura
to go past the store

8.1-21b sienen seet dais sturai
to be past the store

8.1-21c drolen seet dast feestas
to sleep since the party

toort across (d.) (w/ acc.) across (s.) (w/ dat.) across, from X to X (w/ gen.)

8.1-22a venden toort dat vaixa
to go across the road

8.1-22b sienen toort dais vaixai
to be across the road

8.1-22c vyrxen toort mencoesoe
to vary across people
to vary from person to person

untyr under (d.) (w/ acc.) under (s.) (w/ dat.) according to (w/ gen.)

8.1-23a venden untyr dat tica
to go under the table

8.1-23b sienen untyr dais ticai
to be under the table

8.1-23c de vorhait untyr meen
the truth according to me

vicen between, among (d.) (w/ acc.) between, among (s.) (w/ dat.) between (times) (w/ gen.)

8.1-24a venden vicen zuent poolue
to go between or among those poles

8.1-24b standen vicen zuems pooluem
to stand between or among those poles

8.1-24c vicen zast teuzast dagoesoe
between those two days

voon off, from (d.) (w/ acc.) off (s.) (w/ dat.) without, out of (w/ gen.)

8.1-25a falen voon zat tica
fall from or off that table

8.1-25b baiden voon zais ticai
stay off that table

8.1-25c voon eetas
without food, out of food

c) The meanings of ?fuer? are all abstract.

fuer for (a goal or purpose) (w/ acc.) for (a beneficiary) (w/ dat.) instead of (w/ gen.)

8.1-26a groven fuer guelda
to dig for gold

8.1-26b veuken fuer barnum
to work for a child

8.1-26c venden fuer meen
go instead of me

8.2....PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES: Goesk prepositional phrases pattern more-or-less like English ones: they can function adverbially, postmodify nouns and adjectives, and serve as complements for linking verbs.

8.2-1 Ik vendo in hiela.
I go into a cave.

8.2-2 camu in goodantuzai
a man in a suit

8.2-3 froo oovyr hausas
happy about a house

8.2-4 Ik sieno in hiela.
I am in a cave.

b) Since prepositions have distinct meanings with genitive objects, Goesk lacks equivalents to phrases such as ?instead of mine? or ?like Johan?s.? In this context, the thing that the possessor possesses has to be given a name, or at least a pronoun.

8.2-5a 8.2-5b 8.2-5c
fuer meen
instead of me
fuer hausas meen
instead of my house
fuer zas meen
instead of that of me
correctly: instead of mine

8.2-6a 8.2-6b 8.2-6c
rum johanoes
like Johan
rum kaustus johan
like Johan's box
rum zas johanoes
instead of that of Johan
correctly: instead of Johan's

8.3....PREPOSITIONAL MODIFIERS (P-MODS): These each comprise two words. The first word is either ?fuer,? ?doer,? or ?zeer.? The second word is a preposition.

a) P-mods beginning with ?fuer? don?t have deictic meaning, but p-mods beginning with ?doer? (here) or ?zeer? (there) do.

8.3-1 venden fuer auf
to go up, to go upward

8.3-2 kumen doer auf
to come up here

8.3-3 venden zeer auf
go up there

b) Many p-mods are idiomutic; some more obviously than others.

8.3-4 venden fuer brod
to go for all over
correctly: to go all over, travel widely

8.3-5 tuzen fuer at
to do for at/to/etc.
correctly: to do correctly

c) P-mods pattern like prepositional phrases; they can postmodify nouns and adjectives, and serve as adverbials or subject complements. However, not every p-mod fulfills all four of these roles, as the examples below will show.

d) Some prepositions form p-mods only with ?fuer.? Remember that ?fuer oer? can have spatial or temporal meaning depending on context.

fuer at fuer bie fuer fram fuer fuer fuer fyrn
correctly close by away, former, over/done instead, substitute far away

?? Note these abbreviations: NM for ?noun modifier,? AD for ?adverbial,? SC for ?subject complement,? and ?AM? for ?adjectival modifier.? ??

8.3-6a-d 8.3-7a-d 8.3-8a-d
NM vyrd fuer at
a correct word
haus fuer bie
a house close by
potenu fuer fram
a former spouse
AD tuzen fuer at
to do correctly
veuken fuer bie
to work close by
neeman fuer fram
to take away
CO 'Sienit fuer at.
It's correct.
'Sienit fuer bie.
It's close by.
'Sienit fuer fram.
It's over/done.
AM zoor fuer at
rightly angry
kalt fuer bie
cold close by
geun fuer fram
formerly young

fuer fuer fuer fyrn fuer gegen
substitute, instead far away incorrect(ly)

8.3-9a-d 8.3-10a-d 8.3-11a-d
NM poliesu fuer fuer
a substitute cop
haus fuer fyrn
a house far away
vyrd fuer gegen
an incorrect word
AD tuzen fuer fuer
to do instead
veuken fuer fyrn
to work far away
tuzen fuer gegen
to do incorrectly
CO 'Sienit fuer fuer.
It's a substitute.
'Sienit fuer fyrn.
It's far away.
'Sienit fuer gegen.
It's incorrect.
AM good fuer fuer
good instead
kalt fuer fyrn
cold far away
zoor fuer gegen
wrongly angry

fuer lu fuer oer fuer oovyr
on the way in front, before(hand) overhead

8.3-12a-d 8.3-13a-d 8.3-14a-d
NM stur fuer lu
a store on the way
feest fuer oer
a party beforehand or in front
foogyl fuer oovyr
a bird overhead
AD skarfen fuer lu
to eat along the way
venden fuer oer
to go before, go in front
fleemen fuer oovyr
to fly overhead
CO 'Sienit fuer lu.
It's on the way.
'Sienit fuer oer.
It's in front/beforehand.
'Sienit fuer oovyr.
It's overhead.
AM hat fuer lu
hot on the way
drak fuer oer
dirty in front/beforehand
rain fuer oovyr
clear overhead

e) Some p-mods form only adverbials and subject complements with ?fuer,? but fulfill all the expected syntactic roles with ?doer? and ?zeer.?

fuer an doer an zeer an
in place on here on there

fuer auf doer auf zeer auf
up, upward up here up there

fuer durx doer durx zeer durx
through through here through there

8.3-15a-f 8.3-16a-f 8.3-17a-f
AD steden fuer an
to put in place
venden fuer auf
to go up
venden fuer durx
to go through
SC 'Sienit fuer an.
It's in place.
'Sienit fuer auf.
It's up.
'Sienit fuer durx.
It's through.
NM kaust doer an
a box on here
kaust doer auf
a box up here
ru doer durx
a tube through here
AD venden doer an
to go on here
tuzen doer auf
to do up here
beunen doer durx
to burn through here
SC 'Sienit doer an.
It's on here.
'Sienit doer auf.
It's up here.
'Sienit doer durx.
It's through here.
AM rad doer an
red on here
kalt doer auf
cold up here
drak doer durx
dirty through here

fuer need doer need zeer need
down, downward down here down there

fuer seet doer seet zeer seet
past past here past there

fuer toort doer toort zeer toort
across across here across there

8.3-18a-f 8.3-19a-f 8.3-20a-f
AD venden fuer need
to go downward
fleemen fuer seet
to fly past, fly by
venden fuer toort
to go across
SC 'Sienit fuer need.
It's down.
'Sienit fuer seet.
It's past.
'Sienit fuer toort.
It's across.
NM kaust doer need
a box down here
stur doer seet
a store past here
haus doer toort
a house across here
AD venden doer need
to go down here
venden doer seet
to go past here
venden doer toort
to go across here
SC 'Sienit doer need.
It's down here.
'Sienit doer seet.
It's past here.
'Sienit doer toort.
It's across here.
AM drak doer need
dirty down here
kalt doer seet
cold past here
drak doer toort
dirty through here

f) In normal usage, p-mods with ?voon? occur only as adverbials and subject complements.

fuer voon doer voon zeer voon
off off here off there

8.3-21a neemen fuer voon
to take off, remove
8.3-21b 'Sienit fuer voon.
It's off.
8.3-21c neemen doer voon
to take off of here
8.3-21d 'Sienit doer voon.
It's off of here.

g) One p-mod, ?fuer mid,? is adverbial only, and translates as ?along.? For example, ?kumen fuer mid? means ?to come along.?

h) The remaining p-mods perform all their expected syntactic functions with all three initial words, ?fuer,? ?doer,? and ?zeer.? Remember that ?fuer boeftin? can have spatial or temporal meaning depending on context.

fuer boeftin doer boeftin zeer boeftin
in back, after(ward) back here back there

fuer brod doer brod zeer brod
all over all over here all over there

fuer in doer in zeer in
in, inside in here in there

fuer untyr doer untyr zeer untyr
underneath under here under there

fuer ut doer ut zeer ut
out, outside out here out there

8.3-22a-d 8.3-22a'-d' 8.3-23a-d
NM dag fuer boeftin
a day after
kaust fuer boeftin
a box in back
kaust doer boeftin
a box back here
AD tuzen fuer boeftin
to do afterward
tuzen fuer boeftin
to do in back
tuzen doer boeftin
to do back here
CO 'Sienit fuer boeftin.
It's afterward.
'Sienit fuer boeftin.
It's in back.
'Sienit doer boeftin.
It's back here.
AM kalt fuer boeftin
cold afterward
kalt fuer boeftin
cold in back
kalt doer boeftin
cold back here

CHAPTER NOTES: P-Mods with "zeer" (there) pattern just like p-mods with "doer" (here) and should be easy to derive.

Forming p-mods with the prepositions not mentioned in this section should be similarly easy.


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