Chapter 10: AUXILIARIES AND INFINITIVES

10.1....AUXILIARY VERBS IN GENERAL: In declarative sentences, the auxiliary verb is the second major constituent in the clause, while the main verb occurs as an infinitive at the end of the clause. Auxiliary verbs include passive ?sienen,? perfective ?haben,? and the modal verbs.

10.2....PERFECT ASPECT: This is conveyed with the auxiliary ?haben,? which corresponds to German ?haben? and English ?to have.?

10.2-1 Dus frauzu
the woman
habit
has
teubrata
sandwich
skarfen
eat (infinitive)
correctly: The woman has eaten a sandwich.

10.2-2 Hue
they
habeus
had
venden
go (infinitive)
correctly: They had gone.

10.2-3 De kat
the cat
habyl
will have
styrven
die (infinitive)
correctly: The cat will have died.

10.3....PASSIVE VOICE: Passive voice is conveyed with the passive infinitive. In the absence of other auxiliairies, the passive auxiliary is ?sienen.?

10.3-1 De kueke
the cookie
sienit
is
skarfivez
eat (passive infinitive)
correctly: The cookie is being eaten.

a) An agent in a passive clause is denoted by a prepositional phrase with ?durx? taking a genitive object.

10.3-2 Jeu
you
sienist
are
durx unsyr
by us
baidaugivez
watch (passive infinitive)
correctly: You are being watched.

b) Sentences with object complements can be passivized even without agents.

10.3-3 Hue
they
sienoom
were
groos
big
macivez
make (passive infinitive)
correctly: They were made big.

10.3-4 Hue
they
sienoom
are
lervyrue
teachers
make (passive infinitive)
correctly: They were made teachers.

10.3-5 Hue
they
sienoom
are
frood
wise
lerivez
teach (passive infinitive)
correctly: They have been taught (and
thereby made) wise.

c) The passive auxiliary ?sienen? is used only when other auxiliaries are not being used. For instance, perfective ?haben? obviates passive ?sienen? in this example:

10.3-6 Teubrat
sandwich
habit
has
durx frauzoes
by a woman
skarfivez
eat (passive infinitive)
correctly: A sandwich has been eaten by the woman.

10.4....MODAL AUXILIARIES: These are as follows:

darfen....This translates as ?be allowed to? or (in present tense) ?may.?

10.4-1 Jeu
you
darfoos
were allowed to
dat bueka
the book
haben
have (infinitive)
correctly:

10.4-2 Jeu
you
darfist
can, are allowed to
dat bueka
the book
haben
have (infinitive)
correctly: You may have the book.
You are allowed to have the book.

10.4-3 Jeu
you
darfyl
will be able to
dat bueka
the book
haben
have (infinitive)
correctly: You will be allowed to have the book.

fyrgen....This indicates possibility, and often translates as ?might have? in past tense, ?might be __-ing? in present tense, or ?might? in present or future tense.

10.4-4 Hetre
it
fyrgeus
might have
in dais hausai
in the house
sienen
be (infinitive)
correctly: It might have been in the house.

10.4-5 Hetre
it
fyrgit
might (present)
in dais hausai
in the house
sienen
be (infinitive)
correctly: It might be in the house (now).

10.4-6 Hetre
it
fyrgyl
might (future)
in dais hausai
in the house
sienen
be (infinitive)
correctly: It might be in the house (in the future).

gonen....This means ?intend to.?

10.4-7 Ik
I
gono
intend
spaugoozuen
socks
biegen
buy (infinitive)
correctly: I intend to buy socks.

kanen....This means ?be able to,? and often translates as ?can? in present tense, and ?could? in past tense.

10.4-8 Hue
they
kanoom
were able to
eeta
food
huem
to them
geben
give (infinitive)
correctly: They were able to give food to them.

10.4-9 Hue
they
kanant
can/are able to
eeta
food
huem
to them
geben
give (infinitive)
correctly: They can/are able to give food to them.

10.4-10 Hue
they
kanyl
will be able to
eeta
food
huem
to them
geben
give (infinitive)
correctly: They will be able to give food to them.

musen....This means ?to have to? or ?to be obligated to,? and often translates as ?must? in present tense.

10.4-11 Dues barnue
the children
musoom
had to
at beda
to bed
venden
go (infinitive)
correctly: The children had to go to bed.

10.4-12 Dues barnue
the children
musant
must, have to
at beda
to bed
venden
go (infinitive)
correctly: The children must/have to go to bed.

10.4-13 Dues barnue
the children
musyl
will have to
at beda
to bed
venden
go (infinitive)
correctly: The children will have to go to bed.

naigen....This means ?to tend to.?

10.4-14 Dues eufyrue
the pigs
naigoom
tended to
tu
too much
skarfen
eat (infinitive)
correctly: The pigs tended to eat too much.

pasen....Independently ?happen,? as a modal auxiliary, it means ?happen to.?

10.4-15 Ik
I
paseut
happened to
doer
here
lagen
exist, be at a place (infinitive)
correctly: I happened to be here.

spoosten....This means ?to be supposed to,? and may indicate that an action is correct, right, or proper; or that an action or state is purported or expected. This verb can also translate as ?should,? and does not occur in future tense.

10.4-16 Johanu
Johan
spoosteus
was supposed to
at dat cula
to the school
venden
go (infinitive)
correctly: Johan was supposed to/should have gone to school.

10.4-17 Johanu
Johan
spoostit
is supposed to
at dat cula
to the school
venden
go (infinitive)
correctly: Johan is supposed to go/should go to school.

veulen....Independently, this means ?want.? As a modal auxiliary, it means ?want to.?

10.4-18 Ik
I
veulo
want
doot mik
myself
vacen
wash (infinitive)
correctly: I want to wash myself. I want to wash up.

a) Modal auxiliaries sometimes occur without infinitive complements. In such contexts, the meanings ?travel,? ?go,? or ?come? are implicit in modal verbs without objects, while the meanings ?do? or ?say? are implicit in modal verbs that have objects.

10.4-19 Ik kano at dat hausa.
I can (travel/go/come) to the house.

10.4-20 Jeu musist angyljaka.
You must (speak) English.

10.4-21 Hue naigant numyrcafta.
They tend (to do) math.

b) Although ?musen? sometimes translates as ?to have to,? negation with ?nik? indicates prohibition rather than freedom from necessity or obligation. The latter concept is often expressed with the phrase ?nik in srienas? (not because of force). Compare these two sentences:

10.4-22a Jeu
you
musist
must
nik
not
venden
go (infinitive)
corrrectly: You must not go.

10.4-22b Jeu
you
vendylai
will go (subjunctive)
nik in srienas.
not because of force.
correctly: You don't have to go.

10.5....MORE ABOUT INFINITIVES:

a) A sentence can end in more than one infinitive. When the verb phrase contains both the perfect and modal auxiliaries, the perfect auxiliary serves as the finite verb.

10.5-1 Ik
I
habo
have
venden
go (infinitive)
veulen
want (infinitive)
correctly: I have wanted to go.

10.5-2 Hue
they
habant
have
lefen
leave (infinitive)
naigen
tend to (infinitive)
correctly: They have tended to leave.

10.5-3 Hue
they
haboom
had
halivez
heal (passive infinitive)
gienen
start (infinitive)
veulin
want (infinitive)
correctly: They had wanted to start healing.

b) Goesk infinitives serve as complements for verbs whose English equivalents take gerunds as complements.

10.5-4 Hue
they
clusoom
finished
skarfen
eat (infinitive)
correctly:They finished eating.

10.5-5 Hue
they
gienoom
started
vigen.
fight (infinitive)
correctly: They started to fight.
They started fighting.

c) The infinitive complement of ?halten? (stop) must be translated as a gerund to convey the correct meaning. This sentence, for example, means ?The boy stopped sleeping,? NOT ?The boy stopped to sleep.?

10.5-6 Dus paklinu
this boy
halteus
stopped
drolen
sleep (infinitive)
correctly: This boy stopped sleeping.

d) When the verb ?nooxen? (stay, remain) may translate as ?keep,? ?continue,? or ?still be? when it takes an infinitive complement.

10.5-7 Dus meedu
the girl
nooxit
remains
yrnen
run (infinitive)
correctly: The girl keeps running.
The girl is still running.

e) Form perfect infinitive phrases with the perfective auxiliary ?haben.?

10.5-8 Jeu
you
noodoos
needed
ha
it
clusen
finish (infinitive)
haben
have (infinitive)
correctly: You needed to have finished it.

f) Linking verbs other than ?sienen? (to be) and ?verden? (to become) can take infinitive complements.

10.5-9 Hetre
it
cainit
seems
creeden.
walk (infinitive)
correctly: It seems to walk.

10.5-10 Hetre
it
nooxit
remains
creeden
walk (infinitive)
correctly: It still walks.

10.5-11 Hetre
it
bezaugit
looks like
huen
them
skarfen
eat (infinitive)
correctly: It looks like it's eating them.

g) Goesk has no infinitives of purpose. The subordinator ?atec? is used in equivalents to English sentences like ?I ran to get some melons.? (See section 13.3, b).)


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