Chapter 11: QUESTIONS, PREPOSED ADVERBIALS, AND IMPERATIVES

11.1....CLAUSE PATTERN VARIATIONS: In yes-no questions and wh-questions with interrogative adverbials, elements that are not noun-phrases can be preposed, leaving all the arguments after the verb. Adverbials can also be preposed in statements. The verb is always the second major constituent in a clause, except in imperatives, in which the subject is deleted and the verb occurs first.

11.2....YES-NO QUESTIONS: These are derived from statements by placing ?op? in subject position.

11.2-1a Dus camu
The man
skarfit.
is eating.

11.2-1b Op
[yes-no interrogative]
skarfit
is eating
dus camu.
the man
correctly: Is the man eating?

11.2-2a Jeu
You
augist
see
us.
us.

11.2-2b Op
[yes-no interrogative]
augist
see
jeu
you
us?
us
correctly: Did you see us?

11.2-3a De haus
the house
lagit
exist, be located
zeer.
there.
The house is there.

11.2-3b Op
[yes-no interrogative]
lagit
exist, be located
de haus
the house
zeer?
there
correctly: Is the house there?

11.3....WH-QUESTIONS: There are several types. Some begin with interrogative pronouns. Others begin with noun phrases with interrogative determiners or phrases with interrogative genitives. Others begin with interrogative adverbials.

a) Interrogative pronouns come in all four cases.

11.3-1a Vu kumeus?
Who came?
11.3-1b Vetre kumeus?
What came?

11.3-2a Voo
whom
augoos
saw
jeu?
you
correctly: Who saw you?

11.3-2b Va
what
augist
see
jeu?
you
correctly: What did you see?

11.3-3a Vum
to whom
geboos
gave
jeu
you
kausta?
box
correctly: To whom did you give a box?

11.3-3b Vai
to what
geboos
gave
jeu
you
eeldora?
life
correctly: What did you give life to?
What did you bring to life?

b) In WH questions with linking verbs, dative and genitive interrogative complements occur before the verb, while the subject occurs after the verb.

11.3-4a Voes
whose
sienit
is
de haut?
this hat
correctly: Whose hat is this?

11.3-4b Vas
of what
sienant
are
zue?
those?
correctly: What do those go with/belong to?

c) Note these examples of WH questions with nominal object complements. Initial accusative interrogative pronouns stand for objects in questions with final accusative arguments, and for object complements in questions with final nominative arguments.

11.3-5a Vu
who
andyreus
made
doot camoo
this man
lervyroo?
a teacher
obviously: Who made this man a teacher?

11.3-5b Voo
whom
andryoos
made
jeu
you
lervyroo?
a teacher
correctly: Who did you make a teacher?

11.3-5c Va
what
andyroos
made
camoo
a man
jeu?
you
obviously: What did you make the man into?

d) Interrogative determiners come first in a question, but the genitive interrogative pronoun comes after the noun phrase it postmodifies.

11.3-6 Vus
Which
camu
man
lefeus?
left?

11.3-7 Barnu
child
voes
of whom
lefeus?
left
correctly: Whose child left?

e) Interrogative adverbials include not only interrogative adverbs, but also prepositional phrases in which interrogative noun phrases are the objects.

11.3-8 Vaneer
when
vendyl
will-go
jeu?
you
correctly: When will you go?

11.3-9 Varum
why
vendoos
did-go
jeu?
you
correctly: Why did you go?

11.3-10 Ver
where
vendist
go
jeu?
you
correctly: Where are you going?

11.3-11 Heu
how
vendist
go
jeu?
you
correctly: How are you going?

11.3-12 In va
into what
stedoom
put
hue
they
huen?
them
correctly: What did they put them into?

11.3-13 Mid dums camum
With what man
vendoom
went
hue?
they
correctly: Which man did they go with?

11.4....PREPOSED ADVERBIALS: Just about any adverbial phrase can be placed in subject position, even in statements. The finite verb remains in second place.

11.4-1 Foecp
no longer
biegyl
will-buy
johanu
Johan
kenda.
candy
correctly: No longer will Johan buy candy.

11.4-2 Ueblaik
usually
skarfit
eats
at dais skarfecimylai
at the restaurant
johanu.
Johan
correctly: Usually Johan eats at the restaurant.

11.4-3 Bidylaik
several times
faleus
fell
zus eeld camu.
that old man
correctly: Several times, that old man fell.

11.4-4 In zais hofai
in that yard
speeloom
played
barnue.
children
correctly: In that yard, children played.

11.4-5 Doer auf
up here
speelyl
will-play
barnue.
children
correctly: Up here, children will play.

11.5....IMPERATIVES: Imperative verbs are uninflected, as we saw in section 7.1. Imperatives are sentences with imperative verbs, and include commands and ?let?s? suggestions.

a) In imperatives without subjects, the imperative verb always comes first. Imperatives without subjects are commands directed at one or more than one listener, depending on context.

11.5-1a Skarf.
Eat.

11.5-2a Geb huem eeta.
Give them food.

11.5-3a Sien mod.
Be brave.

b) Commands may have second person pronouns or vocative noun phrases when it is important to use emphasis or specify the addressee.

11.5-1b Jeu skarf.
You: eat!

11.5-2b U geb huem eeta.
You all: Give them food!

11.5-3b Johanu sien mod.
Johan, be brave!

c) ?Let?s? suggestions have imperative verbs and ?vier? (we) as the subject.

11.5-1c Vier skarf.
Let's eat.

11.5-2c Vier geb huem eeta.
Let's give them food.

11.5-3c Vier sien mod.
Let's be brave.

c) ?Kanen? and passive ?sienen? can be imperative.

11.5-4 Kan
be able
za
that
leezen
read (infinitive)
correctly: Be able to read that!

11.5-5 Sien
be
vacivez
wash (passive infinitive)
correctly: Get washed.


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