Chapter 13: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES

13.1....SUBORDINATE CLAUSES: In subordinate clauses, the finite verb or gerund comes last (unless it occurs before an optionally postposed clause--see section 13.9).

Example 13.1-0a illustrates an independent clause. Example 13.1-0b illustrates a corresponding subordinate clause that has a finite verb. Example 13.1-0c illustrates a corresponding nominalization.

13.1-0a Ik
I
vendeut
went
at byrga
to a city.

13.1-0b zeeje
that
ik
I
at byrga
to a city
vendeut
went
correctly: that I went to a city

13.1-0c ik
I
at byrga
to a city
vendenetre
going
correctly: my going to a city

13.2....ADVERBIAL CLAUSES: These are introduced with subordinators, and may occur before or after the matrix clause.

a) Adverbial clauses can occupy the subject position of the main clause. When this happens in written sentences, capitalize the verb in the main clause.

13.2-1 Anec
when
ik
I
huen
them
augo
see
Kyrmo
cry
ik.
I.
correctly: When I see them, I cry.

b) Compare the previous example with this sentence in which the adverbial clause occurs after the main clause.

13.2-2 Ik
I
vendo
go
anec
when
ik
I
huen
them
augo.
see.
correctly: I go when I see them.

13.3....ADV-SUBORDINATORS: These introduce only adverbial clauses.

a) Some subordinators are derived from prepositions with the suffix “-ec.” The meanings of these subordinators are related to those that their source prepositions have with genitive objects.

brodec gegenec inec
throughout the time that (tttt) in spite of the fact that (isotft) because
.
midec oovyrec utec
while about the fact that except for the fact that

13.3-1 Brodec
tttt
ik
I
vaxteus
waited
Droleus
slept
dus meedu.
this girl.
correctly: Throughout the time that I waited, the girl slept.

13.3-2 Vier
we
drolud
slept
gegenec
isotft
hetre
it
regen
to rain
lageus
existed
correctly: We slept in spite of the fact that it rained.

b) Adverbial clauses with “atec” (so that) must have ai-subjunctive.

13.3-3 Vier
we
yrnyl
will run
atec
so that
vier
we
eeldoryla.
will thrive (subjunctive).
correctly: We will run so that we will thrive.

c) rumec...is rendered “as” or more informally “like” with indicative mood, but means “as if” with ai-subjunctive.

13.3-4a Vier
we
yrnem
run
rumec
as
slague
slugs
clikant.
crawl.
correctly: We run like slugs crawl.

13.3-4b Vier
we
yrnud
ran
rumec
as if
vier
we
beunivez
to be burned
sienausai.
were (subjunctive)
correctly: We ran as if we were being burned.

c) These subordinators are derived from adverbs with the suffix “-ol,” and introduce adverbial clauses.

heuzol vaneerol varumol verol
however whenever regardless of why wherever

13.3-5 Heuzol
however
hue
they
vendoom
went
Sienoom
were
hue
they
pienig.
fast.
correctly: However they went, they were fast.

d) These subordinators are derived from adverbs with the prefix “heu-,” and introduce adverbial clauses.

heubold heucpeet heufrue heulang heuzoft
as soon as as late as as early as as long as as often as

13.3-6 Hue
they
yrant
run
heufrue
as early as
vier
we
duent us
ourselves
guesem.
awaken.
correctly: They run as early as we awaken.

13.4....ADV-PM SUBORDINATORS: These may introduce adverbial clauses, or clauses that postmodify certain noun phrases. Most of these postmodify noun phrases that stand for times or events, but “verec” postmodifies noun phrases standing for places.

anec boeftinec framec midec
when after from the time that (fttt) while
.
naizec oerec seetec verec
until before since where

13.4-1a Hue
they
vaxtoom
waited
framec
fttt
vier
we
leftud.
left.
correctly: They waited from the time that we left.

13.4-1b Dues dague
the days
framec
fttt
vier
we
lefud
left
sienoom
were
clext.
bad.
correctly: The days from the time that we left were bad.

a) Clauses introduced by “oerec” have to have ai-subjunctive when they stand for prevented actions or states.

13.4-2 Rest
Rest
oerec
before
jeu
you
falistai.
fall (subjunctive)
obviously: Rest before you fall.

13.4-3 Oerec
Before
jeu
you
hausa
a house
biegestai,
buy (subjunctive)
Ieg.
think.
correctly: Before you buy a house, think.

b) In subordinate clauses with ai-subjunctive, “anec” translates as “if.”

13.4-4 Anec
When
jeu
you
yrnoosai
ran (subjunctive)
Sienyl
will be
jeu
you
storofivez.
punish (passive infinitive)
correctly: If you ran, you will be punished.

13.5....COMPARATIVE CLAUSES: The comparative subordinator “fyrnec” translates straightforwardly as “than.” Clauses with this subordinator can postmodify adverbs and predicate adjectives.

13.5-1 Dus meedu
the girl
sienit
is
fesmer
smarter
fyrnec
than
ik
I
sieno
am
obviously: The girl is smarter than I am.

13.5-2 Dus paklinu
the boy
criebit
writes
goodemerlaik
better
fyrnec
than
ik
I
nolo.
(verb pro-form)
correctly: The boy writes better than I do.

13.6....COMPLEMENT CLAUSES: These can serve as arguments for the verb in the main clause, usually the subject or object.

a) The complementizer “zeeje” does the work of the English complementizer “that.” Capitalize the finite verb that comes after a “zeeje” clause in subject position.

13.6-1 Ik
I
vito
know
zeeje
that
jeu
you
at hausa
to a house
vendoos.
went.
correctly: I know that you went to a house.

13.6-2 Zeeje
that
jeu
you
vernookoos
lied
Sienit
is
rain.
clear.
correctly: That you lied is clear.

b) When questions are given subordinate-clause word order, they become complement clauses. Notice that “op” in subordinate clauses translates as “whether.”

13.6-3 Tel
Tell
mis
me (dative)
op
whether
jeu
you
yrnoos.
ran.
obviously: Tell me whether you ran.

13.6-4 Tel
Tell
mis
me (dative)
va
what
jeu
you
veulist.
want.
correctly: Tell me what you want.

13.6-5 Tel
Tell
mis
me (dative)
varum
why
jeu
you
yrnoos.
ran.
obviously: Tell me why you rain.

c) “Anec” and subordinate “vaneer” can both translate as “when,” but may not be used interchangeably. “Anec” only introduces adverbial and temporal-noun postmodifying clauses; subordinate “vaneer” occurs only in complement clauses.

13.6-6 Anec
When
vier
we
yrnud
ran
Laxud
laughed
vier.
we.
correctly: When we ran, we laughed.

13.6-7 Ik
I
vito
know
vaneer
when
jeu
you
vendyl.
will go.
obviously: I know when you will go.

d) Similar considerations apply to “verec” and “ver.”

13.6-8 Vier
we
skarfud
ate
verec
where
dues foogylue
the birds
styrvoom.
died.
obviously: We ate where the birds died.

13.6-9 Vier
We
vitud
knew
ver
where
dues foogylue
the birds
styrvoom.
died.
obviously: We knew where the birds died.

e) Clauses with “zeeje” can serve as complements for predicate adjectives and clause-final adverbs.

13.6-10 Ik
I
sieno
am
geero
ready
zeeje
that
'vendozai
go-1st person-subjunctive
correctly: I am ready to go.

13.6-11 Hetre
It
skuteus
moved
tu pieniglaik
too quickly
zeeje
that
augivez
to-be-seen
'sieneusai.
be-3rd person past subjunctive
correctly: It moved too quickly to be seen.

13.7....RELATIVE CLAUSES: These postmodify nouns or pronouns.

a) Restrictive relative pronouns are identical in form to the remote demonstrative pronouns. Non-restrictive relative pronouns are identical in form to the proximate demonstrative pronouns. Free relative pronouns are derived by adding pronominal endings to the stem “veej-.”

13.7-1 dues camue
the men
zue
who
mik
me
augant
see
correctly: the men who see me

13.7-2 dues camue
the men
due
who
mik
me
augant
see
the men, who see me
correctly: the men, who see me

13.7-3 dues camue
the men
veejie
whichever
mik
me
augant
see
correctly: whichever men saw me

>>>Restrictive relative clauses will be used to illustrate the grammar of relative clauses in this section.

b) Relative pronouns agree in gender and number with their antecedents.

13.7-4 dus mencu
the person
zu
who
faleus
fell

13.7-5 de rost
the rock
zetre
that
faleus
fell

13.7-6 dues rostue
the rocks
zue
these
faloom
fell
correctly the rocks that fell

c) Unlike their English counterparts, Goesk relative pronouns may NOT be omitted.

13.7-7 mencue
people
zuen
whom
ik
I
viten
to know
habo
have
correctly: people (whom) I have known

13.7-8 barnu
child
zoo
whom
vier
we
augud
saw
correctly: a child (whom) we saw

d) Most relative pronouns occur first in a relative clause. However, relative pronouns can be objects of prepositions, and genitive relative pronouns occur after the nouns they postmodify.

13.7-9 bun
cup
in
into
za
which
ik
I
vodyra
water
cueteut
poured
correctly: a cup I poured water into

13.7-10 camu
man
haut
hat
zoes
of whom
ik
I
findeut
found
correctly: a man whose hat I found

e) Yes, complements of linking verbs can be relative pronouns.

13.7-11 dus frauzu
the woman
zu
who
ik
I
sieno
am
correctly: the woman that I am

13.7-12 dus frauzu
the woman
zoes
of whom
detre
this
sienit
is
correctly: the woman this belongs to

13.7-13 dus frauzu
the woman
zum
for whom
detre
this
sienit
is
correctly: the woman this is for

f) Center-embedding relative clauses is grammatical. However, a relative clause may be postposed if its antecedent is either the sole argument of the verb in the higher clause, or the only argument of the verb in the higher clause that has the same person, gender, or number as the relative pronoun.

13.7-14a Hund
A dog
za
that
ik
I
viteut
knew
kumeus.
came.
correctly: I dog that I knew came.

13.7-14b Hund
A dog
kumeus
came
za
that
ik
I
viteut
knew
correctly: A dog came that I knew.

13.7-15a Camu
man
zoo
whom
ik
I
viteut
knew
augeus
saw
rosta.
rock.
correctly: The man I knew saw a rock.

13.7-15b Camu
Man
augeus
saw
rosta
rock
zoo
who
ik
I
vieteut.
know.
correctly: A man saw a rock--the man I knew.

13.8....NOMINALIZATIONS: In a nominalization, a neuter singular gerund takes the place of the finite verb.

13.8-1 Johanu
Johan
hausa
a house
beuzenetre
building-nom.
plogeus
bothered
mik.
me.
correctly: Johan's building a house bothered me.

13.8-2 Ik
I
veuleut
wanted
johanu
Johan
hausa
house
buezena.
building-acc.
correctly: I wanted Johan to build a house.

13.8-3 Hue
They
geboom
gave
skeeta
money
johanu
Johan
hausa
house
buezenai.
building-dat.
correctly: They gave money for Johan to build a house.

13.8-4 Vetre
What
sienit
is
neut
a purpose
johanu
Johan
hausa buezenas
building-gen.
correctly: What is the purpose of John's building a house?

13.8-5 Ik
I
vito
know
oovyr
about
johanu
Johan
hausa
house
buezenas
building-gen.
correctly: I know about Johan's building a house.

13.9....POSTPOSING EMBEDDED CLAUSES:

a) In 13.7 part f), we have seen that relative clauses may sometimes by postposed. This remains true when the matrix clause is itself subordinate.

13.9-1 zeeje
that
camu
a man
rosta
rock
augeus
saw
zoo
who
ik
I
viteut
knew
correctly: that a man saw the rock--a man I know

b) Complement clauses that serve as objects can occur after the final infinitive in the matrix clause.

13.9-2 Vier
We
sienud
were
telivez
tell (passive infinitive)
va
what
jeu
you
veulist.
want.
correctly: We were told what you want.

13.9-3 Vier
We
habem
have
augen
see (infinitive)
johanu
Johan
huspena.
jumping-acc.
correctly: We have seen Johan jumping.

c) So too with adverbial clauses.

13.9-4 Hue
they
kanoom
could
kumen
to come
vaneerol
whenever
nolen
(verb pro-form infinitive)
'veuloomai.
wanted (subjunctive)
correctly: They could come whenever they wanted to.

d) Adverbial clauses and complement clauses that serve as objects may also be postposed after the final verb in a subordinate clause.

13.9-5 den ven
the one
mid zai
with which
ik
I
doot mik
myself
gueso
awaken
boeftinec
after
ik
I
drolo
sleep
correctly: the one with which I awaken after I sleep

13.9-6 anec
when
ik
I
sageus
said
zeeje
that
ik
I
jeuv
you
augeus
saw
correctly: when I said that I saw you

13.10....DIRECT QUOTES: Direct quotes are surrounded by these marks: << >>. As parts of a sentence, a direct quote is treated as accusative arguments of the verb.

13.10-0 Hu sagit
He/She said
<"I'm fram zais byrgai.”
from that city.>>


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