Chapter 14: MORE ABOUT SUBJUNCTIVES

14.1....USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN GENERAL: In section 7.1, part f), we saw the two subjunctive forms defined. In Chapter 13, we saw that some subordinators require ai-subjunctive. This chapter has more information about using subjunctives.

14.2....E-SUBJUNCTIVE: E-subjunctive is used for allegations or indirect speech concerning real events. Whole articles can be written in this mood to protect writers from accusations of libel. Always use e-subjunctive in clauses with ?zeeje? that serve as objects of verbs of communication like ?crieben? (write), ?sagen? (say), ?leezen? (read), ?telen? (tell), and ?hoeren? (hear).

14.2-1 Mencu
a person
cribeus
wrote
zeeje
that
hu
he/she
hail
healthy
sieneuse.
was (e-subjunctive).
correctly: A person wrote that he/she was healthy.

14.2-2 Ik
I
hoereut
heard
zeeje
that
jeu
you
kruenoose.
sang (e-subjunctive).
obviously: I heard that you sang.

14.2-3 Vier
We
sienud
were
telivez
tell (passive infinitive)
zeeje
that
hue
they
losoome.
escaped (e-subjunctive).
correctly: We were told that they escaped.

14.3....AI-SUBJUNCTIVE: To reiterate, ai-subjunctives are used to convey conditional, hypothetical, or plainly counterfactual ideas.

a) In main clauses, ai-subjunctives are usually conditional.

14.3-1 Vienue meen
My friends
vendoomai.
go-past-ai-subjunctive.
correctly: My friends would have gone.

14.2-2 U
Y'all
skarfoetai
eat-ai-subjunctive
za.
that.
correctly: Y'all would eat that.

14.3-3 Op
?
dues mencue
the people
vendantai?
go-ai-subjunctive?
correctly: Would the people have gone?

b) Ai-subjunctive is also used in simple metaphors, defined here as uniclausal statements that each equate two dissimilar things to convey comparison between them.

14.3-4 Dus frauzu
The woman
sienitai
is-ai-subjunctive
onter.
a storm.
correctly: The woman is a storm.

14.3-5 Jeu
You
sienistai
are-ai-subjunctive
hund.
a dog.
correctly: You are a dog.

c) Ai-subjunctives convey counterfactuality most often in subordinator clauses, as in ?zeeje? clauses that serve as the complements of verbs that imply counterfactuality, like ?vuencen? (wish), ?dreemdenken? (imagine), and ?trielen? (doubt).

14.3-6 Ik
I
vuenco
wish
zeeje
that
jeu
you
hausa
a house
buezen
to build
haboosai
had-ai-subjunctive
correctly: I wish you had built a house.

14.3-7 Dus meedu
The girl
dreemdenkeus
imagines
zeeje
that
hu
she
godu
a god
sienitai.
is-ai-subjunctive.
correctly: This girl thinks she's a god.

14.3-8 Hue
They
trieloom
doubted
zeeje
that
bobu
Bob
venden
to go
habeusai.
had-ai-subjunctive.
correctly: They doubted that Bob had gone.

d) However, clauses with ai-subjunctive can be conditional in ?zeeje? clauses that serve as complements for verbs of knowledge like ?viten? (know), ?glooven? (believe), and ?vaxtiegen? (expect).

14.3-9 Ik
I
viteut
knew
zeeje
that
hue
they
kumantai.
come-ai-subjunctive.
correctly: I knew that they would come.

14.3-10 Ik
I
vaxiego
expect
zeeje
that
de flus
the river
dat ha
itself
heebylai.
rise ai-subjunctive.
correctly: I expect that the river would rise (in the future).

This last example, 14.3-10, is about what would happen under future circumstances.


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