Chapter 15: SHORTER SENTENCES

15.1....OMITTING SOME SUBJECTS: In non-future and non-imperative sentences, Goesk's complete verb conjugation makes it possible to omit some subjects without confusion. In writing, such an omission is indicated with an apostrophe.

a....In formal or polite usage, it is customary to use first and second person subjects at least once before omitting them in subsequent clauses.

15.1-1 Ik
I
drinkeut
drank
koolaza
cola
Und
and
'lefeut.
left.

15.1-2 U vitoet nama meen.
Y'all know my name.
'Vitoet mik.
You know me.

b....Since verbs are not inflected for gender, using "hu" and "hetre" may be necessary when their antecedents' genders are not clear from context. Otherwise, generic third person singular pronouns are optional as subjects.

15.1-3 Dus camu
The man
lieceus
lay
doot hoo
himself
fuer need
down
Und
and
'droleus.
slept.

15.1-4 De rost faleus.
The rock fell.
'Bazeus mik.
(It) hit me.

c....Subjects are frequently dropped in informal usage, particularly in responses.

15.1-5
QUESTION: Op
?
augoos
see
jeu
you
za?
that?
correctly: Did you see that?
.
RESPONSE 'Augeut
see-1st-person-plural-past
za.
that.
correctly: (I) saw that.

15.1-6
COMMENT: Hue
They
nik
not
vendoom.
went.
correctly: They didn't go.
.
RESPONSE: 'Vendoom.
go-past-3rd person plural.
correctly: (They) went.

15.2....GERUND CLAUSES: These lack subjects, but are otherwise just like nominalizations. Do not use an apostrophe in writing to indicate the absent subject.

15.2-1 Mis
To me
telenetre
telling-nom.
loesyl
will solve
narna.
nothing.
correctly: Telling me will solve nothing.

15.2-2 Kriec
Get
cleetyluen
tools
fuer hausa buezenai.
for a house building-dat.
correctly: Get tools for building a house.

15.2-3 Op
?
'vitist
know-2nd-person-singular-present
oovyr brauta macenas?
about bread making-gen.
correctly: Do you know about making bread?

a....In gerund clauses with object complements, the object complement is always the second of the two major constituents before the gerund.

15.2-4a camo
man
lerujozoo
student
andryenetre
making-nom.
correctly: making a man a student

15.2-4b frauzoo
woman
zoor
angry
andyrenetre
making-nom.
correctly: making the woman angry

b....Do not confuse infinitive verb complements with accusative gerund clauses. The former have the same subjects as their associated finite verbs; the latter do not, and convey action by unspecified parties if they do not have subjects.

15.2-5a Ik
I
veulo
want
eeta
food
jees
to you
geben.
to give
correctly: I want to give food to you.

15.2-5b Ik
I
veulo
want
eeta
food
jees
to you
gebena.
giving-acc.
correctly: I want (someone) giving food to you.

c....Prepositional phrases each comprising "in" and an accusative gerund clause do the work of English infinitive object complements in sentences with verbs of influence like these:

beuden biden coozen helfen
to command to ask (X to do Y) to beg to help
.
lasen meeken mieten oovyrteugen
to let to make/cause (X to do Y) to avoid to persuade
.
raden skamen srienen traiben
to advise to trick (X into doing Y) to force to prompt

15.2-6 Ik
I
bideut
asked
johanoo
Johan
in helenoo inkumena.
in Helen visiting-acc.
correctly: I asked Johan to visit Helen.

15.2-7 Hue
They
beudyl
will command
jeuv
you
in mod sienena.
in brave being-acc.
correctly They will command you to be brave.

d....In the Goesk equivalent of an English gerund + infinitive combination, the gerund comes last.

15.2-8 fleemen alesenetre.
to fly learning
correctly learning to fly

15.3....SHORTENING PREDICATES:

a....The Goesk verb pro-form is "nolen," meaning "to do so."

15.3-1 Vier
We
veulud
wanted
venden
to go
Und
and
vier
we
nolud.
did so.

b...."Nolen" can take auxiliaries and modifiers.

15.3-2 Vier
We
kanud
can-past
nolen.
do so.
correctly: We could have done so.

15.3-3 Vier
We
nolud
did so
nik.
not.
correctly: We did not (do so).

c....Linking verbs can occur without redundant complements.

15.3-4
QUESTION: Op
?
sienoom
were
hue
they
rad?
red?
correctly: Were they red?
.
RESPONSE Hue
They
sienoom.
were.
correctly: They were.

d....Linking verbs other than "sienen" that occur without redundant complements translate with the English verb pro-form "do."

15.3-5
QUESTION: Op
?
verdoom
because
hue
they
breet?
noisy?
correctly: Did they become noisy?
.
RESPONSE Hue
They
verdoom.
became.
correctly: They did.

15.3-6
QUESTION: Op
?
caineus
seemed
hetre
it
lon?
long?
correctly: Did it seem long?
.
RESPONSE Hetre
It
caineus.
seemed.
correctly: It did.

e....Sentences with shortened predicates can occur as questions. These short questions are often used to cast doubt on previous statements.

15.3-7 Hue verdoom breet.
They became noisy.
Op verdoom hue?
Did they?

15.3-8 Dues mencue yrnoom.
The people ran.
Op noloom hue?
Did they?

f....In the present and past tenses, clauses with shortened predicates can have their subjects omitted just as full clauses can.

15.3-9 'Noloom.
(They) did so.

15.3-10 'Cainoom.
(They) did (seem that way).

15.4....ELIPTICAL SENTENCES AND ONE-WORD UTTERANCES:

a....Almost any word or phrase can function as an eliptical sentence in Goesk.

15.4-1 Eet fuer arnum?
Food, anyone?

15.4-2 Camue!
Men!

15.4-3 Frauzue!
Women!

15.4-4 Vetre?
What?

b....However, a handful of single words function only as one-word utterances, called "one-worders" for short.

c) The following one-worders can be used to answer to questions.

Eebyl.
I doubt it.
Hain.
No comment.
Ifin.
I don't know.
Ja.
Yes.
Kroi.
Maybe.
Nee.
No.
Proo.
That depends.
Viedyr?
Come again?
Zeclu.
That's not true.

NOTE: "Zeclu" can be rendered more colloquially into English with expressions such as "Oh no he isn't," "Oh no they won't," "Oh yes she will," and so on, ad infinitum, depending on the type of statement it is used to contradict.

d....The following one-worders express emotions.

word emotion approximate English version
Boo. disapproval Shame, shame.
Ele. approval Right on.
Fene. contentment Ahhh.
Hople. surprise I'll be darned. Well, well.
Nau. anticipation of good Oh boy!
Ox. annoyance Oh, brother.
Pauzu. anticipation of bad Oh no.
Zee. disappointment Oh, darn.

e....One-worders can be coordinated paratactically with eliptical sentences and just about any other utterance. In writing, a coordinated one-worder is set off with a dash.

15.4-5 Pauzu--hue!
Oh, no--them!

15.4-6 Ja--vorlaik.
Yes, truly.

15.4-7 Fene--detre sienit good.
Ahh, this is good.


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